Steel Manufacturing Processes:
This method of making steel was named after
its inventor Sir Henry Bessemer. It was invented
in England in 1856. Steel made this way is
called Bessemer Steel. It was first used in
United States in 1864 at Wyandotte, Michigan. It
is a cheap way to make steel.
Bessemer developed a pear shaped steel
vessel, lined with firebrick and mounted on
trunnions to convert the pig iron into steel.
These crucibles are of various sizes but many
contain from 5-30 tons of charge per blow.
Scrap steel alloy with the new pigs are
placed into the Bessemer converter and hot air
is blown through the melted metal. Again, the
carbon is burned out and the desired amount of
carbon and alloying elements are added. About
12-15 minute is required to refine 25 tons of
steel. The converter can then be tipped on its
trunnions and the metal poured into a large fire
bricked -lined ladle, which in turns pours the
steel into ingot molds which are formed for
making the steel into blocks. These blocks
of metal are about 20 inches square, from 4-6
feet long, weight about a ton and are called
ingots. The ingots still red hot but cold enough
to stand alone, are rolled into shapes ready for
It is a cheap low grade steel used for nails,
screws, wires, shafts, rails and building
materials such as beams, where low price is more
necessary than quality.